Jl Moreno Bibliography Definition

Dr. Jacob Levy Moreno is the originator of:

  • psychodrama
  • sociodrama
  • role training
  • sociometry
  • group psychotherapy

Moreno was a young man at the time Freud was already older, both are from Vienna. Moreno turned around most of Freud's ideas. Rather than a couch he had a stage. Where the "doctor" was passive in Freud, with Moreno he is active. Moreno moved to America in 1925 where he was influential in the social sciences and developed Psychodrama.

It is one of the phenomena associated with Dr. Moreno that he is somewhat invisible in the literature. This may be because of the style of his work and the fact that he self published. A more profound reason might be that he pioneered a new way of learning and knowing, he has an approach to method that transcends the science / art split in the people related disciplines.


Moreno and Psybernet

His work is relevant to the relationships on the Internet. We can learn from the tradition of psychodrama in the development of online psychological work. His notions of sociometry, the links between people are an obvious example. In a post to the mailing list Psyber-L I compared an Internet mailing list with a stage. It shows how Moreno can be an inspiration here, though the medium is very different.

The principal connection between Dr. Moreno's methods and Psybernet is that we aim to use experiential learning in all the Psybernet endeavours.


Dr. J.L.Moreno Bibliography

Very incomplete, it would be a worthwhile project to have the full bibliography in digital form.

  • Marineau, Rene F.
    Jacob Levy Moreno 1889 - 1974 Father of psychodrama, sociometry, and group psychotherapy. Routlidge 1989 London & New York.
  • Fox, Jonathan (Ed.) 1987
    The Essential Moreno. Springler New York.
  • Psychodrama. Volumes 1, 2 and 3. Beacon House, New York.
  • Sociometry, Experimental Method and the Science of Society. An Approach to a New Political Orientation. Beacon House, Inc. Beacon New York. 1951
    This is the work where I become inspired by his methodology. wl
  • "Psychodramatic Production Techniques", Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama Sociometry 4 (1952) Quoted in Fox 1987.
  • Who Shall Survive? Foundations of Sociometry, Group Psychotherapy and Sociodrama. Beacon House, Inc. Beacon New York. 1953
  • Brigitte MARSCHALL: "Ich bin der Mythe": Von der Stegreifbuehne zum Psychodrama Jakob Levy Morenos. Wien, Koeln, Graz: Boehlau, 1988.

    Brigitte wrote to me: 

     "I am working on an edition of Moreno's early Viennese publications.
    Every contact in this regard would be very welcome!
    Prof. Brigitte Marschall, Univ. of Vienna, Austria "




Internet Mailing Lists & MOO


This page is an independent venture, as an addition to my Psybernet site. I would be pleased to cooperate with groups and individuals in the development of Dr. Moreno's work on the Internet. Information about the application of his work to the electronic media would be appreciated.

[email protected]

Created 1995, Last Updated: Saturday, 25 January 2003

Bibliography of Psychodrama © Inception to Now

Compiled and updated by James M. Sacks till 2009, followed by Michael Wieser
Contributions by
Valerie Greer, Jeanine Gendron and Marie-Therese Bilaniuk

Dear User!

This international bibliography of psychodrama is available to anyone with Internet access. It is the fruit of an attempt to compile an exhaustive list of citations of scientific works on psychodrama since its creation by J. L. Moreno. It now contains more than six thousands entries. There are surely numerous errors of omission and commission. We would like to request that users who discover these errors, send corrections to: michael.wieser@uni-klu.ac.at. We would, also, like to request that authors whose own publications are absent, incomplete or inaccurate, please, inform me so that colleagues around the world may have access to your work. You may send copies to Michael Wieser, Department of Psychology, Universitaetsstr 65, 9020 Klagenfurt, Austria/Europe and I will include it for you. When submitting references, please use current standard APA (2009) format if possible, or if not, please include the following information:

  1. Author's or authors' names including the given name(s) if known.

  2. The year of publication. Writings in press are not included but may be submitted as soon as possible afterwards.

  3. The full title of the book, chapter or article in its original language. If the language uses a non-Latin alphabet, please substitute an English transliteration.

  4. If the original language is not English, include a translation of the title into English.

  5. For chapters in edited books, include the name of the chapter, the name and author(s) / editor(s) of the book, the city in which the book was published and the name of the publisher or publishing company.

  6. For articles in journals, include the name of the journal, volume number and page listing.

The user may find citations that do not include all of the information listed above. Some information is better than none since the user may still be able to locate the desired article on the basis of whatever clues are available. Any scholarly writing, which deals directly and explicitly with psychodrama, is included regardless of its point of view. The psychodrama literature blends gradually into several adjacent fields especially, sociometry, role-playing, simulation techniques, drama therapy, theater games and group psychotherapy. This required somewhat arbitrary decisions in determining what to include. Citations based on "psychodrama" used in a sense other than Morenean psychotherapy and its outgrowths, are not included, e.g. a certain movie genre, etc. Some of the literature in Dramatherapy and Playback Theater as close enough cousins are included. Theater games, the general literature on role-playing and improvisational theater are considered beyond the scope of this collection, as is that of pure sociometry. (You may open Adam Blatner's http://www.blatner.com/adam/pdntbk/sociombibliog.html)

The copious writings of Dr. Jacob L. Moreno, the founder of psychodrama, cover a broad range of subjects including religion, philosophy, group psychotherapy and sociometry in addition to psychodrama. His work on psychodrama is closely intertwined with his work as a whole. With the permission of Paul Hare (1986) we have included the references of his bibliography of the whole corpus Moreno's work. We did not include contributions by others in fields other than psychodrama which Moreno helped initiate or personally founded especially sociometry and group psychotherapy.1

This collection was begun combining three previous collections:

  1. Greer, V. & Sacks, J. M. (1973). Bibliography of Psychodrama. New York: Psychodrama Center of New York

  2. Gendron, J. M. (1980). Moreno: the roots and the branches and bibliography of psychodrama, 1972-1980. Beacon, NY: Beacon House.

  3. Bilaniuk, M.-Th. (1991). Bibliography of Psychodrama, 1980-1990. Toronto: Toronto Centre Training Program in Psychodrama and Sociometry.

With the help of many others the bibliography was greatly expanded. Adam Blatner has provided many leads to international literature that otherwise might have slipped through the cracks. We are indebted to Peter Haworth for many of the British references, Chris Hosking for the Australian and Gábor Pintér for the Hungarian. Antonio José Emaixador Marques and Esly Regina Carvalho contributed generously in translating the numerous Portuguese and Spanish titles and Hans-Werner Gessmann kindly gave permission to include the contents of his Bibliographie deutschspachiger Psychodramaliteratur in this international list. Ulrike Sacks helped in translating Dutch, French, German, Italian and Russian titles. All these people contributed much time, linguistic skill, and good humor and their contributions are deeply appreciated. Thanks especially to Tom Treadwell who arranged the earlier presentation of this bibliography on the Internet.

James M. Sacks and Michael Wieser


APA (2009). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Hare, A. Paul. (1986). Bibliography of the Work of J. L. Moreno. Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry, 39, 95-128.

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