How To Write A Five Paragraph Analytical Essay

English 3201

Writing the Literary Analysis Essay

The best pattern to follow for writing any kind of school essay is the five-paragraph essay model – introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. As your essay-writing skills mature, you can certainly move beyond this model (and by the time you do university courses, you will be expected to do so), but it’s a good basic model to start with.

An expository essay is an essay that explains or gives information about a topic.In this type of essay, each of the three body paragraphs introduces one major piece of information about the topic, so that the essay as a whole makes three main points.

An analytical essay is a particular type of expository essay, the purpose of which is to explain or give information about a work of literature.In this type of essay, each of the three body paragraphs will contain one main example from the text to support the essay’s thesis.

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH: This paragraph should tell the reader what your paper is going to be about.The following information (not necessarily in this order) needs to be included in an introductory paragraph:

1.    a way to draw the reader in, create interest

2.    author of the text

3.    title of the text (underlined or italicized for novels and plays; in quotation marks for short stories and poems)

4.    general statement about the literary work

5.    necessary background information about the story (very little)

6.    thesis statement (your main idea – this should be closely linked to the essay question you are answering.

For example, you might be assigned the following question about Macbeth:

Explore the idea of “manhood” in Macbeth.What does it mean to “be a man” in this play?

Your opening paragraph might read something like this.The numbers in brackets show where the items from the list above have been included in the paragraph:

Real men don’t cry … or watch soap operas … or wear pink.Or do they? Every society has certain ideas attached to what it means to be “manly” or “womanly.” (1) Shakespeare’s great tragedy Macbeth, the story of a Scottish lord who kills the king in order to become king himself, is no exception. (2, 3, 4, 5).Throughout this play, characters constantly make reference to manhood and the idea of “being a man.”In Macbeth, manhood is always associated with physical courage and sometimes even with cruelty. (6)


BODY PARAGRAPHS: These should answer the question “why?” by giving more information about your topic.Each paragraph should be between three and six sentences long and each should have one single, clear main idea.

Each paragraph needs to include specific examples and direct quotes from the work of literature you’re discussing.A body paragraph should include:

1.    topic sentence – like a mini-thesis statement, explaining what the main point of this paragraph will be

2.    context of the quote you are using (where in the story does it appear? in what situation? etc.)

3.    introduction to the quote – who says it? To whom are they speaking? Use a comma before the quote, and enclose the entire quote in quotation marks.

4.    the quote itself followed by a page number in parenthesis (for a Shakespearean play, you can give act and scene number instead of page number).

5.    explanation of the quote in your own words.

6.    analysis of the quote – why it is important and how it relates to your thesis.Be specific about how the quote connects to your thesis.Analysis should be the largest part of your paragraph.

For example, imagine that you are continuing the Macbeth essay on manliness with the first body paragraph.You might write something like this:

Lady Macbeth uses the idea of “manliness” to motivate her husband to commit murder. (1) Before Macbeth murders King Duncan, he begins to have doubts about what he is doing. (2) Lady Macbeth challenges him by saying, (3) “When you durst do it, then you were a man” (Act I, Sc. 7) (4). She says that when Macbeth was willing to kill Duncan, then he was acting like “a real man” in her opinion (5).It is clear that Lady Macbeth associates manhood with courage – specifically, the courage to kill.She follows this up by saying that she would even be willing to kill her own infant while nursing it if necessary – demonstrating that her “womanly” feelings can be overcome by “manly” courage.Manhood, to Lady Macbeth, means physical courage and violence, and she uses this view to motivate her husband. (6)

The next two body paragraphs for this essay might include the following examples:

·         Paragraph 3: Macbeth uses the idea of manliness to motivate his hired murderers to kill Banquo.

·         Paragraph 4: Macbeth demonstrates “manly” courage by fighting to death at the end of the play even when all is lost.

It is always wise to create a brief outline with point-form summaries of each paragraph before you begin to write.Make sure each paragraph sticks to its main point.

CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH: Restate what you told the reader and leave him/her with something to think about.Your conclusion should include:

·         a restatement of your thesis

·         summary of your main points

·         statement that leaves the reader thinking about the ideas in your essay

A classic format for compositions is the five-paragraph essay. It is not the only format for writing an essay, of course, but it is a useful model for you to keep in mind, especially as you begin to develop your composition skills. The following material is adapted from a handout prepared by Harry Livermore for his high school English classes at Cook High School in Adel, Georgia. It is used here with his permission.

Introduction:

Introductory Paragraph

See, first, Writing Introductory Paragraphs for different ways of getting your reader involved in your essay. The introductory paragraph should also include the thesis statement, a kind of mini-outline for the paper: it tells the reader what the essay is about. The last sentence of this paragraph must also contain a transitional "hook" which moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper.

Body:

Body — First paragraph:

The first paragraph of the body should contain the strongest argument, most significant example, cleverest illustration, or an obvious beginning point. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the "reverse hook" which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body.

Body — Second paragraph:

The second paragraph of the body should contain the second strongest argument, second most significant example, second cleverest illustration, or an obvious follow up the first paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body.

Body — Third paragraph:

The third paragraph of the body should contain the weakest argument, weakest example, weakest illustration, or an obvious follow up to the second paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the second paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this paper. This hook also leads into the last, or concluding, paragraph.

Conclusion:

Concluding paragraph:

This paragraph should include the following:

  1. an allusion to the pattern used in the introductory paragraph,
  2. a restatement of the thesis statement, using some of the original language or language that "echoes" the original language. (The restatement, however, must not be a duplicate thesis statement.)
  3. a summary of the three main points from the body of the paper.
  4. a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. (This final statement may be a "call to action" in an persuasive paper.)

A Sample Paper

1Stephen King, creator of such stories as Carrie and Pet Sematary, stated that the Edgar Allan Poe stories he read as a child gave him the inspiration and instruction he needed to become the writer that he is. 2Poe, as does Stephen King, fills the reader's imagination with the images that he wishes the reader to see, hear, and feel. 3His use of vivid, concrete visual imagery to present both static and dynamic settings and to describe people is part of his technique. 4Poe's short story "The Tell-Tale Heart" is a story about a young man who kills an old man who cares for him, dismembers the corpse, then goes mad when he thinks he hears the old man's heart beating beneath the floor boards under his feet as he sits and discusses the old man's absence with the police. 5In "The Tell-Tale Heart," a careful reader can observe Poe's skillful manipulation of the senses. The introductory paragraph includes a paraphrase of something said by a famous person in order to get the reader's attention. The second sentence leads up to the thesis statement which is the third sentence. The thesis statement (sentence 3) presents topic of the paper to the reader and provides a mini- outline. The topic is Poe's use of visual imagery. The mini- outline tells the reader that this paper will present Poe's use of imagery in three places in his writing: (1) description of static setting; (2) description of dynamic setting; and (3) description of a person. The last sentence of the paragraph uses the words "manipulation" and "senses" as transitional hooks.
1The sense of sight, the primary sense, is particularly susceptible to manipulation. 2In "The Tell-Tale Heart," Poe uses the following image to describe a static scene: "His room was as black as pitch with the thick darkness . . ." Poe used the words "black," "pitch," and "thick darkness" not only to show the reader the condition of the old man's room, but also to make the reader feel the darkness." 3"Thick" is a word that is not usually associated with color (darkness), yet in using it, Poe stimulates the reader's sense of feeling as well as his sense of sight. In the first sentence of the second paragraph (first paragraph of the body) the words "sense" and "manipulation" are used to hook into the end of the introductory paragraph. The first part of the second sentence provides the topic for this paragraph--imagery in a static scene. Then a quotation from "The Tell-Tale Heart" is presented and briefly discussed. The last sentence of this paragraph uses the expressions "sense of feeling" and "sense of sight" as hooks for leading into the third paragraph.
1Further on in the story, Poe uses a couple of words that cross not only the sense of sight but also the sense of feeling to describe a dynamic scene. 2The youth in the story has been standing in the open doorway of the old man's room for a long time, waiting for just the right moment to reveal himself to the old man in order to frighten him. 3Poe writes: "So I opened it [the lantern opening]--you cannot imagine how stealthily, stealthily--until, at length, a single dim ray, like the thread of the spider, shot from out the crevice and fell full upon the vulture eye." 4By using the metaphor of the thread of the spider (which we all know is a creepy creature) and the word "shot," Poe almost makes the reader gasp, as surely did the old man whose one blind eye the young man describes as "the vulture eye." The first sentence of the third paragraph (second paragraph of the body) uses the words "sense of sight" and "sense of feeling" to hook back into the previous paragraph. Note that in the second paragraph "feeling" came first, and in this paragraph "sight" comes first. The first sentence also includes the topic for this paragraph--imagery in a dynamic scene. Again, a quotation is taken from the story, and it is briefly discussed. The last sentence uses the words "one blind eye" which was in the quotation. This expression provides the transitional hook for the last paragraph in the body of the paper.
1The reader does not know much about what the old man in this story looks like except that he has one blind eye. 2In the second paragraph of "The Tell-Tale Heart," Poe establishes the young man's obsession with that blind eye when he writes: "He had the eye of the vulture--a pale blue eye, with a film over it." 3This "vulture eye" is evoked over and over again in the story until the reader becomes as obsessed with it as does the young man. 4His use of the vivid, concrete word "vulture" establishes a specific image in the mind of the reader that is inescapable. In the first sentence of the fourth paragraph (third paragraph in the body), "one blind eye" is used that hooks into the previous paragraph. This first sentence also lets the reader know that this paragraph will deal with descriptions of people: ". . . what the old man looks like . . .." Once again Poe is quoted and discussed. The last sentence uses the word "image" which hooks into the last paragraph. (It is less important that this paragraph has a hook since the last paragraph is going to include a summary of the body of the paper.)
1"Thick darkness," "thread of the spider," and "vulture eye" are three images that Poe used in "The Tell-Tale Heart" to stimulate a reader's senses. 2Poe wanted the reader to see and feel real life. 3He used concrete imagery rather than vague abstract words to describe settings and people. 4If Edgar Allan Poe was one of Stephen King's teachers, then readers of King owe a debt of gratitude to that nineteenth-century creator of horror stories. The first sentence of the concluding paragraph uses the principal words from the quotations from each paragraph of the body of the paper. This summarizes those three paragraph. The second and third sentences provide observations which can also be considered a summary, not only of the content of the paper, but also offers personal opinion which was logically drawn as the result of this study. The last sentence returns to the Edgar Allan Poe-Stephen King relationship which began this paper. This sentence also provides a "wrap-up" and gives the paper a sense of finality.

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